Further additional information from The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World, David W Anthony, from the Encyclopaedia of Indo-European Culture, J P Mallory & D Q Adams (Eds, 1997), and from External Links: Indo-European Chronology - Countries and Peoples, and Indo-European Etymological Dictionary, J Pokorny.) The first signs of Indo-European culture emerges between Peshawar and the Ganges Plain.
Modern Indian historians tend to assume longer lengths, pushing the start of this list back to an earlier date than is shown here.
This has the effect of placing the earliest Magadha rulers in Peshawar, or still on the migratory trail into India, whereas here they are assumed to have already infiltrated the Ganges Plain before their first Indian (as opposed to Indo-Aryan migration) dynasty is proclaimed.
Even by the eighteenth century AD, similarities between the languages, which in India emerged as Sanskrit, could easily be spotted by philologists.
The earliest Sanskrit texts, the Vedas (and in particular, Rig Veda) chart an Indo-European migration from Afghanistan (where rivers with recognisable names are mentioned) into north-western India, notably Peshawar, where they settled along the Indus Valley, the river which gave India its name. Details on the migration of the Indo-Europeans into India from the BBC series, The Story of India, by Michael Wood, first broadcast between August-September 2007.
Kingdom of Magadha This was one of the first kingdoms to be founded by the newly arrived Indo-European Aryans in India after 1500 BC.
The heart of the early Aryan territory was the region of Peshawar in modern Pakistan, but the Magadhas may have been amongst the first to venture further eastwards.
Those settlements developed into the Indus Valley culture, but while this provided an early flowering of civilisation in north-western India in the third millennium BC, its demise around 1700 BC left South Asia without an urban culture until small cities emerged in the east, in the Ganges valley and northern India.
During the later years of the Indus Valley culture, and that of its more northerly counterpart, the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC), climate change was clearly having an affect.
The Indo-European word 'arya' meant the 'civilised' or 'respectable' according to general scholarly opinion (the rather tainted 'Aryan' term has been replaced by modern scholars with the more accurate 'Indo-Aryan').
This word, added to a plural suffix, possibly -na, produced Aryana, which is how these people referred to themselves.
The 'barbarous people' were probably those of the forager cultures encountered when the IEs first migrated to the east of the Caspian Sea.