Though anachronistic in retrodating the Khazars to this period, the legend, in placing the Khazar qağan on a throne with equal status to kings of the other two superpowers, bears witness to the reputation won by the Khazars from early times.According to Arabic sources, the lesser king was called îšâ and the greater king Khazar xâqân; the former managed and commanded the military, while the greater king's role was primarily sacral, less concerned with daily affairs.
This theory still finds occasional support, but most scholars view it with scepticism.
In the fragmentary Tes and Terkhin inscriptions of the Uyğur empire (744–840) the form 'Qasar' is attested, though uncertainty remains whether this represents a personal or tribal name, gradually other hypotheses emerged.
By 568, these Göktürks were probing for an alliance with Byzantium to attack Persia.
An internecine war broke out between the senior eastern Göktürks and the junior West Turkic Qağanate some decades later, when on the death of Taspar Qağan, a succession dispute led to a dynastic crisis between Taspar's chosen heir, the Apa Qağan, and the ruler appointed by the tribal high council, Āshǐnà Shètú (阿史那摄图), the Ishbara Qağan.
Golden notes that Chinese and Arabic reports are almost identical, making the connection a strong one, and conjectures that their leader may have been Yǐpíshèkuì (Chinese:乙毗射匱), who lost power or was killed around 651.
when it emerged from the breakdown of the larger Göktürk Qağanate.The ruling stratum, like that of the later Činggisids within the Golden Horde, was a relatively small group that differed ethnically and linguistically from its subject peoples.This is thought to have been the Alano-As and Oğuric Turkic tribes, who were numerically superior within Khazaria.The native religion of the Khazars is thought to have been Tengrism, like that of the North Caucasian Huns and other Turkic peoples.but the scope of the conversion within the Khazar Khanate remains uncertain.The high status soon to be accorded this empire to the north is attested by Ibn al-Balḫî's Fârsnâma (c.