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At this time, a full thousand years after the fall of the Jewish state, there were Jewish communities all over the country.Fifty of them are known and include Jerusalem, Tiberias, Ramleh, Ashkelon, Caesarea, and Gaza.

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Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in peace.

However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.

The Israelites and their culture, according to the modern archaeological account, did not overtake the region by force, but instead branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatristic—and later monotheistic—religion centered on Yahweh.

In 586 BCE, King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon conquered Judah.

According to the Hebrew Bible, he destroyed Solomon's Temple and exiled the Jews to Babylon.

The defeat was also recorded in the Babylonian Chronicles.

Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries.

In the 7th century Palestine was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187.

In 634–641 CE, the region, including Jerusalem, was conquered by the Arabs who had just recently adopted Islam.

Control of the region transferred between the Rashidun Caliphs, Umayyads, Abbasids, Fatimids, Seljuks, Crusaders, and Ayyubids throughout the next three centuries.

In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state.