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He was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill, very close to the Roman Forum.He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen possibly commemorating his father's victory at Thurii over a rebellious band of slaves.He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, and rebuilt much of the city during his reign. He probably died from natural causes, although there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.

Mark Antony was amassing political support, but Octavian still had opportunity to rival him as the leading member of the faction supporting Caesar.Mark Antony had lost the support of many Romans and supporters of Caesar when he initially opposed the motion to elevate Caesar to divine status.Octavian found consul Mark Antony, Caesar's former colleague, in an uneasy truce with the dictator's assassins.They had been granted a general amnesty on 17 March, yet Antony succeeded in driving most of them out of Rome.The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace).

The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession.Philippus never had much of an interest in young Octavius.Because of this, Octavius was raised by his grandmother, Julia, the sister of Julius Caesar.His paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War.His grandfather had served in several local political offices.He, Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar.